Abacus is a tool for calculating the four main operations
Abacus is an old calculation tool that is still used in many Asian countries.

Abacus Structure
A standard abacus is used to perform four basic mathematical operations and can be used to calculate the second and third roots of numbers. The abacus consists of a main frame in which several vertical bars are embedded, and in each of these bars there are a number of wooden beads that move up and down. A horizontal bar divides the space inside the frame into two parts, which are known as the top row and the bottom row.

The components and method of calculating
the abacus for use are placed on a flat surface such as a table or on a leg and move all the upper and lower beads to the opposite side of the horizontal bar.

The value of beads: the numerical value of each bead is 5 in the top row and 1 in the bottom row. When the beads are moved to the horizontal bar they are actually counted.

Counting: When 5 beads are counted in the bottom row, the result is transferred to the top row. When all the beads above and below a column are counted, the result (10) is transferred to the nearest left column.

The last column on the right is the one column, the next column is tens, the next is hundreds, and so on. Decimal calculations are done in such a way that the distance between two columns is determined as a comma, and all columns to the right of this distance show decimal numbers and the columns to the left show integer numbers.

Abacus in our time
Today, Asian shopkeepers still use abacus for their calculations, and the use of abacus is taught in many schools in the Far East. Abacus is also used to teach mathematical calculations to blind children, and it is the best alternative to paper and pencil. In addition, in many normal schools, instead of calculators or doing calculations on paper, they use abacus and teach students how to use it.

March 10, 2022